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This book takes a fresh look at the last three decades and enormous developments in the new electo-optic devices and associated materials.

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General Treatment and various proofs are at a semiquantitative level without going into detailed physics. Contains numerous worked examples and solved problems. Chapter topics include wave nature of light, dielectric waveguides and optical fibers, semiconductor science and light emitting diodes, photodetectors, photovoltaic devices, and polarization and modulation of light.

Physics, BS - Optics Concentration

For the study of optoelectronics by electrical engineers. He obtained the B. In he was awarded the D. For example, Fourier transforms can be readily accomplished by placing a suitable lens in an optical telescope. Since Fourier transforms are often used to obtain the frequency spread of short-pulse radar signals, an optical subsystem could provide an important capability.

Image and electronic signal processing have long been fostered by research organizations within DOD, such as the Office of Naval Research.

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Acousto-optic modulator-based signal correlators have been designed and incorporated into military products, although widespread field deployment has not yet occurred. Prototype vector-matrix, matrix-matrix, and neural network optical processors have all been applied to DOD problems with varying levels of success. Much of the work describing actual field tests remains classified.

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Further discussion of these techniques for commercial applications can be found in Chapter 1. Acquisition reform and the use of commercial items are important strategies for reducing DOD system cost, but many commercially available optical products require special adaptation or improvement to meet unique DOD needs. There are special DOD field requirements for military systems that are not required for commercial applications.

Examples are 1 displays that must work in high ambient light levels, 2 devices that will withstand large temperature excursions, and 3 IR imaging devices with long-range detection and surveillance requirements. Commercial industry is reluctant to invest development effort in these low-volume military products. However, some products such as diode lasers, developed by the military to exacting specifications, have a large commercial market potential. Special DOD operational requirements and low-volume production will necessitate continuing DOD support for core optical competencies from basic research to manufacturing technology.

For example, DOD is financially supporting the development of a manufacturing plant that produces active-matrix LCD display products for aircraft and other military platforms. Past producibility efforts directed at key, high-cost system components have successfully lowered costs and improved performance.

Optical Engineering

The optics assembly process is currently the most expensive system manufacturing step. DOD system suppliers are trying to attack this problem with concurrent engineering and assembly-friendly designs. Funding of new technology developments for DOD systems is declining. There is considerable interest in using existing or commercial optical technology. This is a result of DOD's acquisition reform initiated in , which stresses an affordability-system performance trade-off.

DARPA senior management and industry sources confirm the trend. Small companies are becoming increasingly important as a source of advanced optical technology for rapid insertion into new DOD systems. Download it once and read it on your. Defense prime contractors have noted that they are increasingly dependent on small companies for innovative solutions as a better economic alternative to in-house work.

The downsizing of DOD programs is eroding the defense manufacturing base. DOD programs must address the producibility needs of high-leverage optical components and systems that provide strategic advantage. COTS items cannot satisfy all military requirements. There is a tendency to associate optical technologies with the use of commercial electronic computers and components. However, most military optical systems could not be assembled solely from commercial parts.

Companies have been extremely reluctant to change commercial specifications to satisfy peculiar DOD requirements. Also, it is not necessarily in the national interest to design. For this reason and to ensure a supply of key components during periods of crisis, DOD must sustain selected manufacturing infrastructures.

Even with post-Cold War macrochanges in military doctrine, DOD will continue to favor optics for surveillance, surgical strike with precision guided munitions, and so forth. High-leverage technologies that offer crucial advantages to the nation must be maintained. It is a daunting task to bring to completion the high-leverage military systems needed in limited conflicts, antiterrorist activities, and rogue nation situations as the DOD budget shrinks. This imperative becomes even stronger as the budget shrinks. With science and technology projects undertaken by many university, government, and industry laboratories, planning must be closely coordinated and continuity maintained to extract maximum benefit from these activities.

The confluence of a number of DOD and congressional acquisition policy changes has resulted in greater COTS use, lower-cost system design compromises, and greater dependence on small companies for new technology. This chapter has discussed the acquisition policy of cost-performance-specification optimization for new systems. This trend is particularly strong in the optics field, with hundreds of small companies supplying government's needs. DOD should ensure the existence of domestic manufacturing infrastructures capable of supplying low-cost, high-quality optical components that meet its needs via support for DARPA and the Manufacturing Technology Program.

Optics, Lasers, Photonics, Optical Devices | Springer

It is fundamental that a well-founded manufacturing process saves money on the ultimate product, so this recommendation could seem highly generic. However, with increasing reliance on innovative small suppliers, affordability and quality as new program trade parameters, lower-volume system production, unique mission requirements, and new mission objectives for DOD, the manufacturing paradigm has changed.

New manufacturing techniques are being developed to improve commercial productivity, and DOD should take full advantage of them. A central, coordinated DOD-DOE time-phased plan should be developed and conducted to enable worldwide optical detection and verification of chemical species that threaten civilians and military personnel through hostile attacks. Much has been said about this problem, and its implications are clearly very serious in both civil and military scenarios.

After many years of work, partial solutions have emerged. A single federal authority should be placed in charge of these crucial programs. A coordinated multiyear DOD plan should be conducted to develop RF photonic phased antenna-array technology for radar and communications.

An L-band version of this photonic system and many of the components for higher-frequency systems have been demonstrated. With improved modulator and switch designs, Bragg grating fibers, and higher-power diode lasers, new and better approaches are likely and it is time for a major push. Key technologies such as high-power laser activities and new optics should continue to be pursued by DOD. Erosion of the optical technology base through benign neglect or lack of federal agency coordination must not be allowed; the return on investment is very high.

After decades of work, fieldable laser devices can now provide the power levels, spectral diversity, and adaptive optics configurations necessary as countermeasures to extreme threats, especially from missile attack. New laser sources and optical technology innovations offer solutions and totally new system concepts that can provide our nation with true strategic and tactical defense advantages.

Pentagon reaches out to private sector for new ideas. Directed energy weapons come of AGE. Infrared array detectors create thermal images. Laser Focus World September.

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Hyperspectral imager will view many colors of Earth. Preface to Science and Technology Review. Office of the Secretary of Defense, May. Infrared focal plane array technology. Defense Science and Technology Strategy. Evaluation of the Air War. Government Printing Office, July. The first reconnaissance satellite.